Experimentation is a very simple concept which means observing the world around us, getting some information from that piece of the world, and then interpreting it. Everything else falls in the reporting, and usability of that information, which itself can create its own world. Two of the most important concepts in experimentation are observation and concept. Observation can itself come from two different sources, and concepts that form around those observations can be beneficial or they can be brutally dangerous. Normally these two different sources are the actual system under study and the model of that system. There is a certain distinction between the two. Normally what happens that the system becomes a pure entry which gives us infallible information, but its the person who can make a model which can impure the judgments that we might get from the model of that system.

In the book Experimentation by D.C. Baird, we see a detailed analysis of this. Baird mentions a simple example of this when he says

There exists an all-important distinction between the portion of the real world that is under discussion (we refer to it as the system under study) and the ideas and concepts (generally referred to as the model) that we invent in our heads as a consequence of observing the system. There is usually little difficulty in comprehending the nature and status of the first of these, the measurements. The second, however, needs a little elaboration. Our purpose in inventing ideas is to represent the observed properties of the system in a kind of shorthand way so that we can talk to each other about the system conveniently, easily, and with a common basis of understanding. For example, if we were the first people on earth exploring our environment for the first time, we might notice teach day, certain type of tree in our wanderings. But instead of reporting today’s sighting and yesterday’s sighting separately and so on for the preceding month, as if each observed event were unrelated, it would be much more convenient to invent, using a certain set of described properties, the abstract concept “banana.” Such a concept would allow us to plan together for tomorrow’s dinner much more expeditiously and with better economy of communication that would be the case without it. Beyond such simple examples, the use of models is widespread, significant, and sophisticated.